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This is a female family with one incredible knockout punch. They descend from The Byerly Turk sire line — and the influence of their strain on important sire lines and female families can be traced right up to today.

Pictured in the background, THE BYERLY TURK. In the foreground, an aristocratic, possibility The Sultan, of the Ottoman Empire.

Female families traditionally receive less credit than sire lines in terms of their contribution to the makeup of an individual. This bias initially stemmed from the fact that a mare has only a limited breeding life, compared to a stallion, and therefore exercises less influence. However, the mare contributes a full 50% to the DNA of any offspring, and so is hardly marginal in shaping the breed and moving it forward. The other popular theory is that ancestors of any one individual have less and less influence the further back they appear in its pedigree. Clearly, from a genetic stance, an ancestor in the 15 generation has had its genetic contribution diluted over time. Be that as it may, any pedigree is a carefully woven series of genetic markers and without that far-removed ancestor, the individual would not be quite the same.

Also worth noting: we are aware that Bruce Lowe’s Thoroughbred Families (1895) is a theory that has undergone substantial revision due to more recent research. We are using his system here chiefly to trace the chronology of the progeny and descendants of the Agnes family.

 

THE BYERLY TURK

The Byerly Turk was one of the three foundation sires of the thoroughbred breed. The other two are, of course, the Darley Arabian and the Godolphin Arabian, the latter famously featured in Marguerite Henry’s “King of the Wind.”

Captain Byerly’s Turk stallion was first a noble and courageous war horse during the time of the Ottoman Empire. One current theory states that at the seige of Buda in Hungary in 1688, Captain Robert Byerly of the Sixth Dragoon Guards relieved a captured Turkish officer of his handsome brown/black Turk stallion. Other theories claim that the stallion was captured in Vienna. Either way, he became known as the Byerly Turk because his owner became Captain Byerly. They were litterly thousands of Turk horses bred at this time. Extant records show that Turkish breeders, called “timars” (landowners, a privilege that had to be granted by the Sultan of the empire) had, as a collectivity, so many thousands of Turk horses that exact numbers could not be estimated. Turk horses weren’t bred to make money; rather, they were bred out of national pride and duty to the empire — quite simply, it was a timar’s duty to help preserve the Turk bloodline.

The best of the Turk horses, who were described as strong, powerful and highly intelligent, were co-opted into the Turkish Sultan’s enormous calvalry, where they would take their chances on the battlefield before they were retired to stud, going back to their owners.

Thought to be a reasonably accurate portrait of THE BYERLY TURK, though painted after his death, the stallion is pictured here with his groom. The grooms of Turk stallions were indentured to them from the moment of their birth until the end of their days.

After the approximately 8 year-old Byerly Turk became Captain Byerly’s war horse, it is documented that they participated in battles in Ireland during King William’s War and at the Battle of Boyne in July 1690. During his time in Ireland, there is an account of the stallion at a race meeting at Down Royal in Northern Ireland, at which he reputedly won the top prize, the Silver Bell. That the Byerly Turk and his owner were seconded into the ranks of the Queen Dowager’s Cuirassiers (later to become the 6th Dragoon Guards) tells us that the Byerly stallion was no fine-boned specimen but, rather, a big-bodied type, possibly standing as tall as 16h. We can make this assumption with some confidence, since the horses inducted into this regiment had to be either black or bay, and of “substantial” size and substance.

For those interested in reading more about THE BYERLY TURK, I recommend this book by Jeremy James. Although controversial because of competing theories about THE BYERLY TURK, it is beautifully written and what is imagined is firmly based in a credible historical context. (The only other book on the stallion, titled “The Byerly Turk” by K.M. Haralambos is very good, but very dry, and concentrates on tracing the stallion’s descendants/sire line.)

When he was retired to stud, The Byerly Turk stood at the Byerly estates in County Durham and then in Yorkshire. He reportedly covered very few “well-bred” mares for reasons that remain unclear, making his influence on the development of the thoroughbred somewhat remarkable. His best sons were Basto and Jigg. A descendant of Jiggs, Highflyer (1774), exercised as important an influence as Eclipse (1764) on the evolution of the thoroughbred.

HIGHFLYER (Herod X Rachel by Blank by the Godolphin Arabian). Owned by Richard Tattersall of Tattersall’s fame, as a stallion HIGHFLYER earned more than Tattersall made selling bloodstock. In 1790, the stallion had 109 winners and his stud fee peaked to 50 gns., a handsome sum in the day.

Initially, the influence of The Byerly Turk sire line flourished, but by 2020 it seems inevitable that it is on the verge of extinction: today, over 90% of thoroughbred stallions worldwide descend from the Darley Arabian sire line.

THE AGNES FAMILY: BEGINNINGS

The “Agnes family,” dating back to the birth of matriarch Agnes in 1844, were shining examples of the influence of The Byerly Turk sire line in earlier days.

The celebrated JOHN OSBORNE JR., a famous English jockey of the 1800s.

There appear to be no portraits of Agnes, which is a shame, but she does have a colourful story all her own.

In 1844, one John Howe Osborne, the father of a popular jockey of the day, “Honest John” Osborne Jr. (whose riding career lasted some 46 years and who then went on to become a trainer of repute) attended the races at Shrewsbury, where he purchased a mare with a filly foal at her side for 14 sovereigns. The mare was named Annette, and her filly foal was Agnes. As the founder of the Agnes family, Agnes is considered to be the matriarch of the most important family in ther British Stud book, according to E.M. Humphnis in her biography, The Life of Fred Archer.

The mighty BIRDCATCHER.

Agnes’ second foal was a filly, Miss Agnes (1850), by the famous British sire Birdcatcher (1833), also known as Irish Birdcatcher for his routing of others at The Curragh during his years on the turf. Through his son, The Baron, Birdcatcher was the grandsire to the great stallion, Stockwell, and his brother, Rataplan.

“…Several of Birdcatcher’s sons proved effective stallions. First and foremost was The Baron, who sired the brothers Stockwell and Rataplan out of the great mare Pocahontos, and who became a classic sire in France as well. It’s through Stockwell that Birdcatcher’s sireline comes to the forefront in the breed today through Doncaster, Phalaris, Teddy, Native Dancer, and Nearco. The grey-coated Chanticleer sired St. Leger winner Sunbeam … [another son] Oxford sired Sterling and Nuneham. Both Mickey Free and Knight of St. George were sent to America and met with some success there.”  (Thoroughbred Heritage Portraits)

THE BARON (1842), sire of STOCKWELL, an important sire.

 

POCAHONTOS (1837) pictured with her bay colt, STOCKWELL (1849). The mare is considered one of the most important foundation mares in the UK. (NOTE: Not to be confused with the American mare of the same name.)

 

One of the most important thoroughbred sires ever, the handsome STOCKWELL.

Miss Agnes began a dynasty all her own.

Through her daughter, Frivolity (b.1867/Macaroni X Miss Agnes), Miss Agnes became the great grandam of one of the top broodmares of the last century, Plucky Liege (1912/Spearmint X Concertina).

PLUCKY LIEGE, a daughter of SPEARMINT X CONCERTINA, the great grandaughter of MISS AGNES.

Plucky Liege produced eleven champions, including a winner of the Epsom Derby, Bois Roussel (1935) when she was twenty-three years old. She was also the dam of Admiral Drake, Bull Dog and Sir Gallahad III. So important was Plucky Liege, largely through a daughter, Marguerite de Valois and sons Bull Dog and Sir Gallahad III, that it is difficult to find a major runner today who doesn’t carry a strain of Plucky Liege in its pedigree.

Bois Roussel: The 1938 Epsom Derby:

 

In 1863, Osborne sold Miss Agnes, together with her filly foal by The Cure, Little Agnes (b. 1856), to Sir Tatton Sykes, who was in the process of building his legendary stud at Sledgmere.

Like her dam, Little Agnes was to have a long reach established principally through twop daughters.

WILD DAYRELL (1852) and the Earl of Craven. He won the Derby in 1855. WILD DAYRELL was the sire of WILD AGNES. Interestingly,this is one of the earliest photographs of a thoroughbred ever taken.

 

Here’s how Little Agnes’ influence played out in simplified form:

Daughters of Little Agnes and their get:

1) Wild Agnes (b. 1852/Wild Dayrell X Little Agnes)

A) her daughter, Fair Agnes (b.1853/Voltigeur X Wild Agnes): Ancestress of the important sire Desmond (1896), a son of St. Simon. Desmond’s daughter, Molly Desmond, out of champion Pretty Polly, appears in the 5th generation of Northern Dancer’s pedigree. It is through Molly Desmond that we come to Lady Angela, the dam of Nearctic, sire of Northern Dancer. 

The handsome DESMOND (1896), a son of St. Simon.

Champion of the turf and British heroine, PRETTY POLLY by Alfred Charles Havell.

MOLLY DESMOND (1914/ Desmond X Pretty Polly), great grandam of LADY ANGELA, who was the dam of NEARCTIC, the sire of NORTHERN DANCER. Photo courtesy of Thoroughbred Heritage online.

 

The young LADY ANGELA (1944). The daughter of HYPERION was imported to Canada by E.P. Taylor. And the rest, as they say, is history.

NORTHERN DANCER: In the beginning…

 

A-i) Wild Aggie(b. 1870/ Wild Dayrell X Fair Agnes) produced Dolly Agnes (1883), ancestress of: Sulamani; the important sire Green Dancer; Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe winner Solemia; Authorized, Derby champion and sire of 2-time Grand National winner Tiger Roll; champion 2,000 Guineas winner, Makfi; champion filly November Snow and Kentucky Derby winner, Strike The Gold.

The handsome GREEN DANCER (1972) was one of NIJINSKY’S many successful sons at stud.

TIGER ROLL: His second Aintree Grand National win

 

A-i/1) Frivolous (b. 1875/ Friponnier X Wild Aggie): ancestress of champions including Epsom Derby winner Slip Anchor (1982); the Wildenstein’s Star Lift (1984); Stacelita (2006); Salomia (2009); Buena Vista (2006); and Manhattan Cafe (1998).

SLIP ANCHOR & Steve Cauthen: The 1985 Epsom Derby:

The superb STACELITA now makes her home in Japan, where she has already produced the champion SOUL STIRRING, a daughter of FRANKELfor owner Teruya Yoshida.

 

2) Another daughter of Little Agnes, Bonnie Agnes (b. 1875/ Blair Athol X Little Agnes) is the ancestress of Zabeel, Detroit, Carnegie and Herbager.

DETROIT’S 1980 Arc win:

Again put to The Cure, Miss Agnes produced another filly and a full sister to Little Agnes, Polly Agnes, in 1865. The filly was small and delicate, and owner Sir Tatton Sykes, it is variously reported, took an extreme dislike to her. Sykes accordingly offerred Polly Agnes to his stud groom, John Snarry. Snarry held a far more positive view of the filly, took her and sent her on to his son at The Newstead Stud, in Malton, North Yorkshire. Clearly, Snarry Sr. was a fine judge of bloodstock, because Polly Agnes was to become the most famous of all of the Agnes family descendants. Snarry’s Newstead Stud may have been modest, but it was about to become one of the most prestigious breeding establishments in Great Britain through Polly Agnes.

Snarry determined not to race his little filly but to breed her instead. Polly Agnes’ first foal, by Cathedral (b. 1861), a son of the excellent Newminster (b. 1848), was a colt who was named Rural Dean (b. 1869) and he did nothing much. Snarry decided to send Polly Agnes to the important British sire, Macaroni (b. 1860), winner of the Derby Stakes, the Two Thousand Guineas Stakes and the Doncaster Cup. The result was a filly he named Lily Agnes (b. 1861).

The stallion MACARONI (b.1860) during his racing days. Painted by Harry Hall in 1863.

 

LILY AGNES by MACARONI X POLLY AGNES during her racing career.

 

LILY AGNES

From extant paintings, it appears that Lily Agnes held some resemblance to her sire. She may not have been a beauty, but she was the first of three fillies from Macaroni – Polly Agnes matings that would, according to noted sports writer, William Scarth Dixon ( in “In the North Countree — Annals and Anecdotes of Horses, Hound and Herd”)  result in “…some of the finest horses the world has ever seen.”

It seemed that the filly also carried some physical resemblance to her female family. Lily Agnes was described by Scarth Dixon as “…a game looking mare, light of flesh like her grandam but with immense propelling power and famous limbs. She also had the lop ears that are a peculiarity of the family.” Once in training. Lily Agnes’ true measure began to surface. She won all 4 of her starts at 2 with comparative ease; in 1874 she won 7 of 10 starts, winning the Northumberland and Doncaster cups against the colts. But her greatest performance (William Scarth Dixon) came in 1875, when she won the Great Ebor Handicap against some very good colts carrying an impost of some 8lbs.

Once retired, John Snarry sold Lily Agnes to the Duke of Westminster in 1880; she was in foal to Doncaster at the time. Of course, there were great expectations for Lily Agnes as she was, at the time, one of the few great race mares of her age. The Doncaster colt foal was named Rossington (b. 1881) and had moderate success. A full sister, Farewell (b. 1882), won the One Thousand Guineas for the Duke.

LILY AGNES pictured here with ORELIO (b.1894) by Bend d’Or.

But the Duke was not convinced that Doncaster was the right sire for Lily Agnes, selecting instead Bend Or. And from this mating came an individual who is the most important sire of the 19th century — and who was, as well, a brilliant race horse: Ormonde.

ORMONDE

There are countless stories of champions who were underrated or even openly disliked by their owners when they were youngsters, and such is the case with Ormonde. The Duke wasn’t overly impressed with him, but kept him and sent him off to trainer John Porter at Kingsclere Stables.

John Porter was an ambitious man with enough foresight to buy Highclere from his mentor’s, Sir Joseph Hawley, estate. He re-designed Highclere and laid down the Watership Down gallops that are still in use today. Porter also founded Newbury racecourse. (The stable passed to trainer Ian Balding in the second half of the 20th century and is now run by his son, Andrew Balding. Ian trained the fabulous Mill Reef at Kingsclere, as well as Mrs. Penny, the beloved Lochsong, Tagula, and, in total, 2,000 Kingsclere winners before his retirement.)

JOHN PORTER’S Highclere Stables and his residence, Park House. The first photo shows JOHN PORTER. The Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News, January 7, 1899.

John Porter became one of England’s most prestigious trainers. Among his charges were three Triple Crown winners in Ormonde, Common and Flying Fox; Ormonde’s good son, Orme; Oaks winner Geheimness; and that same year, another Derby winner in the filly Shotover, as well as (British) Filly Triple Crown winner, La Fleche. Porter was clearly a terrific trainer, but he also possessed another valuable character trait that more often than not pays off: patience. Such was the case with Ormonde; when the colt arrived at Kingsclere he was a less-than-impressive physical specimen, but under Porter’s care and patience, he not only won the British Triple Crown but retired undefeated.

As a sire, Ormonde had a storied life, travelling from England to Argentina to California then back to England and finally, back to California again. His sire record isn’t great, with few sons and daughters in general, and this was because Ormonde was not a healthy horse. He was a roarer and always had breathing issues, a problem attributed to his dam and the Agnes family. Illness affected him, making him subfertile as well. Given this, his stallion travels in the late 19th/early 20th century seem ill-advised, if remarkable.

However, Ormonde is the great great grandsire of Teddy, through Ajax by Triple Crown champion Flying Fox. French-bred Teddy sired Sir Gallahad III (out of Plucky Liege), La Troienne and Bull Dog (also out of Plucky Liege), changing the face of American breeding forever.

Sir Gallahad III sired the Triple Crown winner, Gallant Fox, Kentucky Derby winners Gallahadion and Hoop Jr., and Preakness winner High Quest. He also sired Roman (sire of champions Hasty Road, Romanita and Broodmare of the Year {American} Pocahontas); Fighting Fox (a full-brother to Gallant Fox, who sired the champions Fighting Step and Crafty Admiral); Insco (sire of champions Unerring and Inscoelda), Hadagal, Black Devil (winner of the Doncaster Cup in the UK), Count Gallahad, Sir Damion, Sir Andrew, Bold Irishman, and Amphitheatre.

GALLANT FOX’S (American) Triple Crown:

Teddy was also a notable BM sire. The best of his daughters was La Troienne, the dam of Bimelech and Black Helen, who is also the grandam of Busher, great grandam of Buckpasser and the ancestress of Numbered Account, Easy Goer and Smarty Jones, among others.

Bull Dog, a full brother to Sir Gallahad III, was the Leading sire in 1943. As a BM sire, he was very effective and was Leading BM sire in 1953, 1954 & 1956. His most influential son was Bull Lea, the sire of Triple Crown winner, Citation.

All this having been said, we still aren’t “done” with Lily Agnes. The mare had five other matings with Bend Or, one of which produced the filly Ornament (1887). Ornament wasn’t much on the turf, but as a broodmare, she gave the world a jewel in Sceptre (1899), by Persimmon.

Sceptre raced during the same time as champion Pretty Polly, but the two never met on the turf even though they were often compared in the tabloids, in what was a mock rivalry. Sceptre was a champion of great depth and accomplishment, so much so that she deserves her own place on The Vault — and she’ll have that before the year is out. So we won’t detail her astounding turf career here. But whereas her so-called rival, Pretty Polly, led a life of luxury, Sceptre was not so lucky; in addition, she was underrated as a broodmare, failing to produce anything regarded as “important.”

However, as often happens, it can take more than a generation for the blood of a superstar like Sceptre to show itself. And it was her daughter, Maid of the Mist (1906) by Cyllene (1895) who would carry Sceptre into the future through a son, Craig An Eran (b. 1918/Sunstar by Sundridge X Maid of the Mist by Sceptre).

CRAIG EN ARAN as depicted by A.W. Stirling-Brown.

One of the best in England in 1921 at 3, Craig En Aran won the 2000 Guineas, St. James Palace Stakes, the Eclipse Stakes and finished 2nd in the Epsom Derby and 4th in the St. Leger.

At stud he proved successful, if not brilliant. His best son was Admiral Drake (b. 1931/Craig En Aran X Plucky Liege) — and note that “the Admiral” carries two strains of the Agnes family through both his sire and his dam. Admiral Drake sired the Epsom Derby winner, Phil Drake (b.1952/Admiral Drake X Philippa, from the Teddy sire line) but Admiral Drake and his sire, Craig En Aran, are arguably more of interest here because they appear in the 4th and 5th generations, respectively, of Halo ( b. 1969/Hail To Reason X Cosmah), as does Sir Gallahad III (through Plucky Liege).

HALO’S sire, HAIL TO REASON, winning as a 2 year-old at Monmouth Park:

Halo, a great and memorable sire, despite his vicious temperament.

And Halo is, of course, the sire of Sunday Silence (b. 1986/Halo X Wishing Well by Understanding) among other excellent progeny.

And Sunday Silence completely changed the face of Japanese breeding through his daughters and sons, the most prepotent of which was arguably the late Deep Impact (b.2002/ Sunday Silence X Wind In Her Hair by Alzao, Northern Dancer sire line).

1989: Two descendants of the Agnes family, SUNDAY SILENCE and his foe, the mighty EASY GOER, meet again in the Breeders Cup Classic:

The Great One: DEEP IMPACT

 

 

IN CONCLUSION

Believe it or not, this isn’t even a complete record of how “those Agnes girls” shaped the breed worldwide. Truthfully, why this female family hasn’t had its very own book published is surprising. Of course, we can’t say that the strains of this family directly influenced important individuals like Halo or Sunday Silence or Northern Dancer, but we can hold that without the Agnes family these individuals could never have been.

To say that the lop-eared Agnes and her progeny were remarkable is an understatement. Their story stands as one of the most remarkable in thoroughbred history.

 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dixon, Scarth William. In The North Countree: Annals And Anecdotes of Horses, Hounds and Herds. Read Books, 2013. Online reference.

Gillies, Scot. Rare Thoroughbred Sire Lines — Ormonde and Teddy and Damascus. Blood-Horse online, December 19, 2018.

Humphris, Edith Mary. The Life of Fred Archer. London: Hutchison, 1923.

Hunter, Avalyn. American Classic Pedigrees. Lanham MD: Blood-Horse Publications, 2003.

James, Jeremy. The Byerly Turk. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2005.

Kingsclere History. Online at Kingsclere website: https://www.kingsclere.com/kingsclere-history/

Thoroughbred Bloodlines. Online site.

Thoroughbred Heritage. Online site.

McGrath, Chris. Byerly Turk Reaching The End Of The Line. In TDN Europe, June 10, 2018.

 

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NOTE: THE VAULT is a non-profit website. (Any advertising that appears on THE VAULT is placed there by WordPress and the profit, if any, goes to WordPress.) We make every effort to honour copyright for the photographs used in our articles. It is not our policy to use the property of any photographer without his/her permission, although the task of sourcing photographs is hugely compromised by the social media, where many photographs prove impossible to trace. Please do not hesitate to contact THE VAULT regarding any copyright concerns. Thank you.

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At this writing, many voices have already sounded out about the recent sale of California Chrome to Japanese interests. As the champion is due to leave prior to Christmas, I wanted to add my own voice to the choir.

 

I have to admit that I’m still in shock. California Chrome stands large among that small, elite group of American thoroughbreds that over the centuries gave the breed and the sport wings. So the very idea that the consortium that owns Chrome would sell him to another country still floors me, and the message it sends in so doing is dark. Very dark. Because it has the effect of a kind of semantic vortex, ramming the point home to me that any thoroughbred is essentially a commodity and, as such, about making money. And more money. Ad infinitum.

Too, the timing of the transaction, given what the sport is going through in the USA this year was, to be kind, “unfortunate.”

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The first thing that happened when I heard the news was a voice inside me that whispered: “…so…Chrome doesn’t belong to us anymore.”

My response may sound silly, but even Samuel Riddle, all those decades ago, understood that Man O’ War belonged to the people.

 

When a horse belongs to the people, they are woven into a nation’s identity and into personal histories.

It can happen with real, live superstars like California Chrome, or those that lived long before most of us were born.

And it isn’t always in the cards that a great thoroughbred receives this kind of recognition; in fact, those thoroughbreds who make the journey from the track into the heart of a nation are small in number.

Time does nothing to wither the people’s devotion to the few who join the pantheon: Man O’ War, Exterminator, Phar Lap, Red Rum, Greyhound, Arkle, Dan Patch, Seabiscuit, Northern Dancer, Desert Orchid and Secretariat are with us today, glorious in their vividness. Stories about them are passed down over generations, so central are they to the foundation of racing and National Hunt culture. They live on within a people’s consciousnes, a nation’s collective memory.

Chrome grabbed my attention early in his three-year old campaign. It was his courage and the sheer majesty of watching him run that did it. For three minutes, several times through 2014, Chrome lifted me up and took me to that world where great horses take those who journey with them.

And journey I did. Fervent hopes travelled with Chrome and his team when they arrived in Kentucky a little ahead of the first Saturday in May in 2014. By then, I was tired of hearing how the big chestnut was a “freak,” given his pedigree. I understood that Chrome was a champion-in-the-making. (It was enough for me that he carried Pulpit, A.P. Indy, Mr. Prospector, Seattle Slew, Numbered Account and Secretariat over his first five generations. As a racing historian, I know that a great individual can emerge from a sire line or female family as much as three generations later. This is far more usual than a casual observer might think. In the case of Chrome — he was to become the most accomplished of the A.P. Indy line by the time he retired. )

Chrome’s Derby gave me the same chills and sense of wonder that I had felt watching Barbaro in 2006 and Rachel Alexandra in the 2009 Kentucky Oaks. It was the spectacle of the colt leading the field home that so reminded me of my response when first Barbaro, and then Rachel, came down the home stretch. My heart cracked wide open and I wept.

On our journey went, through the highs and lows.

Dubai 2016: “…It’s alchemy in Dubai: Chrome turns to gold…” This call will live with me forever, right up there with the most famous lines from Secretariat’s Belmont and Zenyatta’s BC Classic win.

When Chrome left the Shermans’ barn at Los Alimitos, California for the last time, I watched it live and tried not to cry. Art Sherman and son Alan, together with Dhigi and Raul, were family by now, and I could almost feel what they were feeling as the time for their colt’s retirement drew nigh.

 

In Kentucky, I delighted in his burgeoning relationship with Gilberto at Taylor Made and the spontaneous home videos and photographs of them playing together. And the folks at Taylor Made were wonderful, honouring the social contract with Chrome’s faithful following in so many ways, from Chrome visits to timely updates.

CHROME and Gilberto at Taylor Made.

 

 

All seemed right in Chromeland……until the news broke, on November 20, 2019.

I had to read the headlines twice. I just couldn’t believe it.

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I appreciate that thoroughbred breeding is an international affair. But that’s not new. The British stock that travelled to Kentucky in the eighteenth century were, after all, the foundation of the North American thoroughbred.

And I have little doubt that California Chrome will be given the royal treatment in Japan.

He’ll stand at Arrow Stud, a base that doesn’t attract elite mares but, rather, more modest types. His full book for 2020 indicates enthusiasm, but it also bespeaks an industry that is no less impatient for quick results than anywhere else in the thoroughbred racing world. As was pointed out to me by bloodstock expert Michele MacDonald recently, Empire Maker only got 50 mares in his last year in Japan: despite a superb pedigree, he was apparently a less-than-succesful outcross to the Sunday Silence bloodline and too slow to get winners. And so it was that Empire Maker, the grandsire of TC winner American Pharoah, came home.

My sorrow is founded on the fact that Chrome isn’t just any horse. He’s an American icon and the pride of a nation. He’s also a conduit, bringing youth and others into horse racing by closing the distance between the sport, its superstars and the public.

But none of that mattered, it would seem.

It would have been unthinkable in the racing community of owner-breeders like William Woodward or the late Penny Chenery, who were only too pleased to share their pride in their champions with the nation.

As a fan recently wrote: “Well then, let’s just ship them all out of the country. I’m done with racing.”

How very sad.

(David Trujillo on Youtube)

 

BONUS FEATURES

1) I wrote my heart out about Chrome and his team on THE VAULT on January 31, 2017:

https://thevaulthorseracing.wordpress.com/2017/01/31/to-chrome-and-his-team-how-you-made-me-feel

2) Did you know this about California Chrome? Steve Haskin of The Blood-Horse. Highly recommended.

http://cs.bloodhorse.com/blogs/horse-racing-steve-haskin/archive/2019/11/25/chrome-gone-but-forever-part-of-history.aspx

3) Posted by David Trujillo (Youtube)

 

4) Before California Chrome’s Belmont Stakes: fan video posted by America’s Best Racing

 

5) From RIDE TV

6) Another video made lovingly by a fan (debhart01498 on Youtube)

7) Playing: Chrome and Gilberto at Taylor Made (Armando Reyes, Youtube)

 

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NOTE: THE VAULT is a non-profit website. (Any advertising that appears on THE VAULT is placed there by WordPress and the profit, if any, goes to WordPress.) We make every effort to honour copyright for the photographs used in our articles. It is not our policy to use the property of any photographer without his/her permission, although the task of sourcing photographs is hugely compromised by the social media, where many photographs prove impossible to trace. Please do not hesitate to contact THE VAULT regarding any copyright concerns. Thank you.

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As the world awaits Enable’s attempt to win the Arc for an unprecedented third time, it’s worth noting that she already belongs to a very select group. Since the first Arc (1920) only seven other individuals have won it twice.

 

In 1920, the British-bred COMRADE (Bachelor’s Double X Sourabaya) became the first Arc winner. The colt was trained by Peter Purcell Gilpin of Clarehaven Stables, who also famously trained the champion, PRETTY POLLY.

 

1) KSAR (1921, 1922)

KSAR became the first dual Arc winner.

The Arc was designed to complement the prestigious Grand Prix de Paris, as well as promote the French thoroughbred breeding industry. It must have smarted when the British-bred Comrade won the very first Arc. However, only a year after its first running, along came the first of the dual Arc winners who was, happily, also a French-bred. Ksar was the product of a pair of champions. His sire, Bruleur, won the Prix de Paris and Prix Royal-Oak; a descendant of The Flying Dutchman, Bruleur was a top stayer.

KIZIL KOURGAN, dam of ZSAR, painted by Allen Culpepper Sealy.

Ksar’s dam, Kizil Kourgan (Omnium II X Kasbah), was also a blueblood and won the Poule d’Essai des Pouliches, the Prix Lupin over colts, the Prix de Diane, the Grand Prix de Paris, and the Prix Royal-Oak as a three year-old.

In 1921, after winning the Prix Royal-Oak in a manner that saw him return to his stable as fresh as a rose, Ksar was produced three weeks later to win the 1921 Arc. The following year, Ksar continued in his brilliant ways, losing only twice and once when his regular jockey, George Stern, was replaced by another rider. In the 1922 Arc, Ksar and Stern were reunited, and the result gave history its first dual Arc winner.

Ksar would go on to be a leading sire in France, producing the likes of Diademe and the influential sire, Tourbillion. He was also the damsire of 1941 Arc winner and champion 3 year-old La Pecha.

2) MOTRICO (1930, 1932)

MOTRICO was the second ARC winner.

Eight years later, a bay colt named Motrico (Radames X Martigues) also completed an Arc duo. Owned by Vicomte Max de Rivaud and trained by Maurice d’Okhuysen, the colt took his name from a Spanish coastal town. A descendant of the Triple Crown winner, Flying Fox, through his sire line, Motrico also carried St. Simon in his upper and lower family tree.

Following his first Arc win in 1930, Motrico was retired to stud, where he proved unpopular. So the stallion was returned to the turf two years later, winning the 1932 Arc to become the oldest individual to do so, at the age of seven.

3) CORRIDA (1936, 1937)

CORRIDA, the first filly to win dual Arcs, was owned by the legendary Marcel Boussac.

Another dual winner in the form of the filly, Corrida, came in 1936 and 1937. Corrida’s 1936 Arc signalled the first of six Arc winners for the race’s most successful owner, Marcel Boussac, who went on to win the Arc so many times — with Djebel (1942), Ardan (1944), Caracalla (1946) and Coronation (1949) — that Boussac became a household word in his native France.

Corrida was, like so many thoroughbred champions, bred in the purple. Her sire, Coronach, was by the prepotent sire Hurry-On, and proved to be a champion. Coronach won the 1926 Epsom Derby, as well as the prestigious St. Leger, St. James Palace and the Coronation Cup for owner-breeder, Lord Woolavington.

Derby day in 1926 was wet and dreary, but the handsome Coronach led all the way and won as he pleased. The following video shows the world of horse racing in 1926 in some detail, while featuring Coronach’s Derby win. Coronach can be seen starting in the post parade: look for the colt with the long, white blaze and jockey in white silks with a bold stripe across chest and sleeves. (NOTE: There is no sound.)

 

 

Corrida’s dam, Zariba, was a daughter of Maurice de Rothchild’s champion, Sardanapale. Winner of the Prix Morny and the Prix de la Foret, Zariba was no slouch herself on the turf. As a broodmare, Zariba was a success and Corrida was her best offspring.

Not only did the brilliant Corrida win her second Arc in 1937, but that same year she also took the Grosser Preis der Reichshaupstadt in Germany, dismissing a field that included two Deutsches Derby winners, and an Italian Oaks and 1000 Guineas winner.

Corrida’s story ended abruptly in the midst of the German invasion of France in WWII. By then, the filly was retired and had produced a colt foal, Coaraze, to a cover by champion Tourbillon. Many thoroughbreds disappeared during the invasion and the Germans frequently exported thoroughbreds seized as they marched through Europe to their German National Stud. Other thoroughbreds died in bombings.

Among those who disappeared from the Boussac stud were sire Pharis — and Corrida.

 

COARAZE, the only progeny of CORRIDA, was brilliant on the turf. His stud career was in Brazil and was supreme in his influence on the Brazilian thoroughbred.

4) TANTIEME (1950, 1951)

Francois Dupre’s Tantieme had the dubious record of being the last French-bred thoroughbred of the 20th century to realize dual Arc victories.

TANTIEME, owned by Francois Dupre, was as brilliant on the turf as he was in the breeding shed.

A bay colt with a fine intelligent head, Tantieme was the son of Deux Pour Cent of the Teddy sire line and the mare, Terka. On the turf, Tantieme proved himself outstanding: he was out of the money only once in 15 starts and also won the Grand Criterium, Poule d’Essai des Poulains, Prix Lupin, Prix Ganay and the British Coronation Cup. Retired to stud, he sired champions Tanerko, Reliance, Match II and the filly La Senga.

TANERKO, winner of the Grand Prix St. Cloud, Prix Ganay and Prix Lupin, among others. At stud, he sired the Classic winner, RELKO.

 

RELIANCE, winner of the Prix du Jockey Club, Grand Prix de Paris, Prix Royal-Oak, Prix Hocquart and the Prix de Morronniers. a champion, RELIANCE was only beaten once — by the incomparable Sea-Bird in the 1965 Arc.

 

MATCH (MATCH2 in USA) winner of the King George VI & Queen Elizabeth Stakes, Grand Prix de Saint-Cloud, Prix Noailles and Prix Royal-Oak in France. In the USA he famously won the Washington D.C. International Stakes.

5) RIBOT (1955, 1956)

Of course, the narrator of Ribot’s first Arc win (above) might not have been aware that he was looking at a racing giant. In any case, the title of this British Pathe video makes us smile today, because Ribot wasn’t just any “Italian horse.” In fact, Frederico Tesio’s colt would take the racing world by storm. By the time he retired in 1956, immediately after his second Arc win, Ribot had shown himself able to win at any distance, against some of the best of his day and over any type of turf, marching to victory in Italy, France and England.

 

Ribot went off to the breeding shed undefeated and was exceptionally successful as a sire. He began his stud career at Lord Derby’s stud in England before being syndicated under the terms of a 5-year lease and relocated at Darby Dan farm in the USA. As a stallion, Ribot developed a nasty temperament, one that only surfaced after his retirement from racing — and this made insuring him for travel almost impossible. The result was that he couldn’t be returned to Lord Derby or anywhere else and remained in the USA until his death in 1972.

Ribot progeny who distinguished themselves include the great Tom Rolfe, His Majesty, Arts and Letters, Molvedo, Ribocco, Prince Royal and the champion Ragusa.

6) ALLEGED (1977, 1978)

Lester Piggott and ALLEGED after their win in the 1977 Arc.

Britain’s Alleged had not initially been pegged as destined for greatness when first arriving at the Master of Ballydoyle’s stables. Originally destined for the dirt and having started his training in California, it was the view of the trainer there that Alleged’s weak knees would never hold up on the dirt. Subsequently purchased by Robert Sangster, Alleged was sent to Ireland, where the incomparable Vincent O’Brien determined that the colt needed some time to develop to his full potential. The son of Hoist The Flag (and grandson of Tom Rolfe, a son of Ribot) began to show his promise as a 3 year-old when he won the Great Volitigeur Stakes impressively.

With Lester Piggott in the irons, Alleged walked on to the course at Longchamp in 1977 and ran into history.

Lester and Alleged would repeat in 1978.

The video below is in French. Here are a few helpful details pre-viewing: Alleged is number 6 in the-then Coolmore silks of bright green and blue. Note that American jockey legend, Willie Shoemaker, rides Nelson Bunker Hunt’s fine mare, Trillion (number eight). Trillion raced in France where the daughter of Hail To Reason was hugely successful. Also of note is Freddy Head, riding Dancing Maid (Lyphard), who was a jockey of brilliant accomplishment, perhaps best noted for his wins on the fabulous Miesque. Head would go on to train the superb Goldikova, among others.

The four year-old Alleged started as “le grand favori” — the overwhelming favourite. Not surprisingly, both Shoemaker and Head are right there at the end.

Lester Piggott, described by the announcer as a “Buster Keaton figure” actually managed a smile as he and Alleged were led past the stands and Alleged was acknowledged as one of the very best of his generation. Freddy Head was reported to be “downfallen” by his filly’s performance, while Willie Shoemaker was saluted for the fine performance of his filly Trillion and onlookers were reminded that in his native USA, Shoemaker was a superstar.

Retired to stud — where he became still another bad-tempered sire like his great grandsire, Ribot — Alleged was nevertheless an overwhelming success, ranked among the top ten sires in England in 1985 and sixth among sires of winners in France in 1988. As a BM sire, Alleged led the list in France in 1998 and came second in 2002. Among his best known progeny as a stallion and BM sire are Miss Alleged, Shantou and Flemensfirth.

7) TREVE ( 2013, 2014)

It’s almost impossible to forget the mighty Treve, who had devoted fans all over the world and, at one point, even had her own website. Trained by Criquette Head-Marek, the sister of Freddy Head, Treve’s first Arc dazzled and her second left fans breathless, coming as it did after a difficult campaign where the filly battled health issues.

In 2013, Treve gave France its first French-bred Arc winner of the 21st century and with her 2014 Arc victory, the first French dual Arc winner as well. The daughter of Motivator (Montjeu) out of Trevise (Anabaa) was still another Arc champion bred in the purple.

In 2013, undefeated as a 3 year-old, Treve beat some greats to lead the field home under Thierry Jarnet, who filled in for the injured Frankie Dettori:

2014 had been a tough year for Treve, making her 2014 Arc victory all that much sweeter. Flintshire and Al Kazeem were back, to be joined by the talented Taghrooda, Kingston Hill, Ruler of the World and Gold Ship. But there is only one Treve — and she showed it emphatically on the day:

Treve’s connections entered their mare for a third tilt at the Arc, but it was not to be:

Treve did her best but was no match for the John Gosden-trained and Frankie Dettori-ridden champion, Golden Horn, who had also won the 2015 Epsom Derby. The mare finished fourth, under a drive by Thierry Jarnet.

Treve was subsequently retired and has since produced three foals: Paris, born in 2017 and sired by Dubawi, and fillies by Shalaa (2018) and Siyouni (2019) who remain unnamed. She is in foal to Sea The Stars to a 2019 cover.

8) ENABLE (2017, 2018)

Now it’s Enable’s turn to greet the racing gods at Longchamp on October 6, 2019. Running as a 5 year-old, as Treve did in her final Arc run, the mare’s most-touted rivals are thought to be Coolmore’s Japan, White Birch Farms’ Sottsass, Gestut Ammerland & Newsells Park’s Waldgeist and Godolphin’s Ghaiyyath.

Japan (Galileo X Shastye by Danehill) is a 3 year-old colt whose last start was in August where he narrowly defeated Crystal Ocean to win the Juddmonte International. The colt has also scored in the King Edward (June) and at Longchamps in the Juddmonte Grand Prix de Paris in July:

So Japan will head into the Arc very fresh, having had the longest break of all of Enable’s more prominent foes.

Sottsass (Siyouni X Starlet’s Sister by Galileo) most recently won the Qatar Prix Neill at Longchamps on September 19, 2019. The 3 year-old enters the Arc with a record of 6-4-0-0 and continues to improve, according to trainer Jean-Claude Rouget:

Waldgeist  (Galileo X Waldlerche by Monsun) is the same age as Enable and is a gutsy, determined competitor who is coming into his own. His last start was on September 15 over the Longchamps turf in the Qatar Prix Foy, winning handily in what looked very much like a good, easy blow before the Arc. Here’s Waldgeist beating Ghaiyyath in the Prix Ganay at Longchamps in April:

It is true that Enable has already taken on Waldgeist and beaten him, but this chestnut is so honest and he can be counted on to bring his best to Longchamp in October.

Ghaiyyath (Dubawi X Nightime by Galileo) is a 4 year-old whose racing career was stalled in 2017. Returning in 2018, the 3 year-old sparkled at Longchamps, but did little else that year.

This year, Ghaiyyath has looked very good in the Prix d’Harcourt and breathtaking in the Grosser Preis von Baden, where he not only ran 14 lengths clear but also beat the 2019 winner of the German Derby. Ghaiyyath races in the Godolphin blue, under jockey William Buick :

This last win was on September 1 and was jaw-dropping, even though the pace was modest. Given his up-and-down career to date, it’s worth wondering which Ghaiyyath will show up on October 6 at Longchamps.

Enable goes into this year’s Arc in top form, undefeated in her 2019 campaign and with some impressive running under her belt, notably the sensational battle between Enable and Crystal Ocean in the King George:

Enable showed of what she is made in the King George, as did the magnificent Crystal Ocean, but the 5 year-old mare came out of this contest in fine form to defeat another great in Magical in the Yorkshire Oaks in August.

According to trainer John Gosden, Enable is as of this writing in excellent health and, as a mature thoroughbred, at the “…height of her powers.”

On October 6 she will face another challenge in what has already been a superlative career. Should she win, Enable will be the first and only thoroughbred to achieve three Arc wins.

To Enable and Frankie we say, “May the winds of Heaven guide and keep you. Just do your best — and come home to us safe.”

 

Bonus Features

  1. John Gosden talks Enable (September 26, 2019)

2. Enable gallops the Rowley Mile (September 25, 2019)

3. Frankie Dettori (September 25, 2019)

 

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NOTE: THE VAULT is a non-profit website. (Any advertising that appears on THE VAULT is placed there by WordPress and the profit, if any, goes to WordPress.) We make every effort to honour copyright for the photographs used in our articles. It is not our policy to use the property of any photographer without his/her permission, although the task of sourcing photographs is hugely compromised by the social media, where many photographs prove impossible to trace. Please do not hesitate to contact THE VAULT regarding any copyright. Thank you.

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The racing public loves them all, from the superstars to those that run their hearts out each and every time without ever mounting the steps to glory.  And then there are those very few who break through to steal your heart away.

So it is with Enable.

I felt privileged to follow Nathaniel, a son of Galileo and the sire of Enable, through the years in which the great Frankel campaigned. But Nathaniel, unlike Frankel, suffered physical setbacks and never had the chance to showcase his stamina over his three years on the turf. Trained by John Gosden (who also trains Enable), owned by Lady Rothschild and ridden by the young Will Buick, when Nathaniel was good he was very very good indeed:

Once retired, it seemed that his limited campaign might well take a toll on his stallion prospects. In 2014, out of Nathaniel’s first crop, came a homebred of Prince Khalid Abdullah’s Juddmonte operation. The filly was out of the Prince’s mare, Concentric, a daughter of Sadler’s Wells. In due course, she was christened Enable.

ENABLE as a filly foal, following close on her dam’s heels.

That Enable descended from Northern Dancer was hardly unique, since his line continues to dominate thoroughbred bloodlines in the UK through sons like Galileo, and more immediate descendants like Frankel and Nathaniel. It was in the UK that our King of Canadian thoroughbreds first made a name for himself as a sire. The first “Master of Ballydoyle,” the incomparable Vincent O’Brien, single-handedly built The Dancer’s reputation as a sire of champions in those early years. So it was that I entered into the world of British flat-racing, celebrating the superb Nijinsky, as well as The Minstrel, El Gran Senor and so many other outstanding individuals campaigned by Ballydoyle.

By the 1990’s I was wholly caught up in thoroughbred racing on the other side of The Pond and with the arrival of the internet, I often had the best seat in the house.

Even though I was keen on following Nathaniel’s first crop, I missed Enable’s first start largely because it was exactly that and therefore overlooked in the media. But on Epsom Oaks day in 2017, through lightening flashes and driving rain, Enable made herself known as a filly to remember. It was only her third start.

At this point, I was impressed, but also knew too much about the vicissitudes of the sport to jump on the Enable bandwagon. Like her jockey, who, after the Oaks victory declared, “…she’s only run three times, she’s very good … I think she’ll get better,” I needed to see more.

On the 2017 British flat season went and if I’d “needed to see more,” Enable was quite happy to dish it out. The Irish Oaks, King George and Yorkshire Oaks fell before her like so many leaves from a mighty oak, leaving colts of the quality of Highland Reel, Ulysses, Benbatl, Idaho and Jack Hobbs in her slipstream. And at some point along the way (and before the 2017 Arc) Nathaniel’s daughter stole up on me and began to play my heartstrings.

ENABLE: A few basic details. Note that her best stride equals that of SECRETARIAT. Published in the Racing Post (UK).

Just like the nucleotides (molecules) in a string of DNA, each and every individual in a thoroughbred pedigree contributes to the making of a particular filly or colt. Thoroughbreds as far back as the 15th generation of Enable’s pedigree contributed to her genetic profile, even though any direct influence is typically limited to the first five generations. Still, take just one ancestor out of the mix and Enable is no longer Enable. But heredity is only part of the equation: the other 50% has to do with training and handling. And for that, accolades to John Gosden and her team for keeping Enable happy within herself for three straight years.

With John Gosden in 2018.

Frankie and ENABLE. Photo and copyright, Michael Harris. Used with permission.

With her BFF and exercise rider, Imran Shahwani. Photo and copyright, Michael Harris. Used with permission.

Kisses from Tony Proctor, Head Travelling Man for Clarehaven after her win in the 2019 Darley Yorkshire Oaks. Photo and copyright, Michael Harris. Used with permission.

To witness the campaign of a great thoroughbred in the modern era is little different than being part of the history of champions like The Tetrarch or Hyperion or Kincsem or Man O’ War in their own time. They, too, engendered the palpable appreciation of the crowd, the rumble and cheers at the finish, the crush of humanity around the winners enclosure. It’s always been a kind of ritualistic happening, the relationship between a champion thoroughbred and the racing public of the day, even without cell phones to record it all.

In Enable’s case, I found myself thinking of the darling of early 20th c. racing in Great Britain, Pretty Polly (1901-1931), whose lifetime achievement of 22 wins in 24 starts no other filly in the 20th century would match. But it was not just the number of her victories, it was the way she dismissed the competition:

PRETTY POLLY is seen here in an image that recalls words uttered when ECLIPSE ran: “…and the rest nowhere.”

Like Enable, Pretty Polly was a superstar, and her racing career was sweetened by the attentions of an adoring public. She featured regularly in periodicals of the day: one article was even devoted to spending the day with her at the stables of her trainer, Peter Gilpin.

In Family Tables of Racehorses, written by Kazamierz Bobinski and deemed one of the most important books on thoroughbred breeding, only one mare born in the 20th century qualified for special status as head of a special branch, identified in her own right as a prolific source of quality in the breed: that mare was Pretty Polly. Her first daughter, Molly Desmond, was the most potent of the four fillies Polly produced. Molly’s descendants include Spike Island (1922 EpsomDerby winner), Nearctic (the sire of Northern Dancer and Icecapade, among others), Chef-de-Race Great Nephew (sire of the ill-fated Shergar, among others), the great Japanese sire Northern Taste, Brigadier Gerard (Britain’s Horse of the 20th Century) and Classic winners Premonition, St. Paddy, Flying Water and To-Agori-Mou and Luthier. Pretty Polly’s other three daughters, Dutch Mary, Polly Flinders and Baby Polly, account for Donatello II, Supreme Court, Vienna (the sire of Vaguely Noble), Carroll House (winner of the Arc de Triomphe), Epsom Derby winner Psidium, Only For Life, Unite, Marwell, My Game by My Babu (whose daughters produced champions) and Court Harwell; recent descendants include the incomparable Invasor (2005 Triple Crown in Uruguay, 2006 Breeders Cup Classic, 2007 Dubai World Cup, 2006 American HOTY, 2013 HOF inductee) and champion Soldier of Fortune (2007 Irish Derby, 2007 Prix Niel, 2008 Coronation Cup).

When Bobinski’s text of 1953 was updated by Toru Shirai in 1990, Pretty Polly’s influence had become so enormous and her descendants so successful that the continued force of family 14-c into the 21st century is assured.

The mighty INVASOR is a descendant of PRETTY POLLY, through NEARCTIC, who traces back to MOLLY DESMOND.

There are several instances of Pretty Polly in Enable’s pedigree, both along her sire line and in her female family. This in and of itself isn’t all that surprising, given the influence of Pretty Polly’s daughters. Nevertheless, I welcomed the Enable-Pretty Polly connection: it seemed fitting that the heroine of early 20th c. British racing ought to smile down on a heroine of the early 21st century.

Like Enable, Pretty Polly was a large filly, standing over 16h. who, despite her size, was very feminine. Although she was brilliant on race day, Pretty Polly disdained her pre-race works, which were often described as “sluggish.” Frankie Dettori and John Gosden have said the same of Enable, Frankie describing her attitude as something akin to, ” Just shove off…”  Both Polly and Enable are described as “sweet-natured” until the roar of battle transforms them into determined warriors who refuse to be headed. Neither filly appears to have founthe huge crowds that gathered to see them on race days disturbing, taking it all in stride.

PRETTY POLLY was a big, albeit feminine filly, noted for her sweet temperament when at Clarehaven. On the track, however, she morphed into a warrior.

I was, however, astonished by one connection: Pretty Polly’s trainer, Peter Gilpin, actually built Clarehaven Stables at Newmarket on the betting proceeds from a winning filly named Clarehaven, who won the Cesarewitch Handicap in 1900. As is well -known, Clarehaven is home to John Gosden’s stable and to Enable. In the early part of the last century, it was also the home of Pretty Polly.

The filly CLAREHAVEN after her win in the Cesarewitch in 1900. From “Horse Racing Greats: Mr. Peter Purcell Gilpin” by Alfred E.T. Watson, n.d.

The Arc was Enable’s last start of 2017 and when she came home, leading the field, I wept. I’m fairly certain I wasn’t alone: Enable was the first British-trained filly to ever win the Arc.

ENABLE: the 2017 Prix de l”Arc de Triomphe. Photo and copyright, Michael Harris. Used with permission.

Had I not witnessed her stellar 3 year-old campaign, I might have been less astounded by Enable’s performance at 4.

2018 wasn’t a good year for Enable’s team, as far as her health was concerned. A knee injury that threatened to see her retired was overcome, but then came further minor setbacks. The cumulative result was that Enable competed only 3 times in 2018 — but what a performance she gave, narrowly taking the Arc from the flying Sea of Class, and then showing her grit in the BC Classic against her old nemesis, Magical. These two races were only slightly more than a month apart and on two different continents.

As the Arc and the BC Turf unfolded, I saw a filly whose courage, heart and fighting spirit could not be denied. But Enable was also very clearly not the Enable of the previous year, and it irked me that so many failed to understand that an athlete who could not be conditioned to the max due to injury had to be an absolute superstar to accomplish what she did. In Europe, the Arc is the pinnacle; in the USA, it’s the Breeders Cup. Enable became the first thoroughbred in history to win both the Arc and the Breeders Cup (Turf) in the same year. As the 2018 racing season closed, I was in awe of John Gosden for the monumental role he had played in Enable’s unprecedented success. And the filly? Words were inadequate to express her heart, her courage.

My emotions throughout 2018 are best represented in this footage of Enable’s return to the winner’s circle after her second Arc win:

 

Now we are a few short weeks before the 2019 Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe, which might well be Enable’s last appearance before she retires.

Thus far, the year has been emotionally-charged.

At Sandown, Ascot and Ebor, Enable has packed in a public anxious to see the mare they call their Queen before she leaves the turf forever. Trainer Gosden has borne the responsibility of racing a national icon with characteristic grace, while Frankie Dettori has wept. Imran Shahwani and Tony Proctor give the impression that they are Masters of Zen, living each moment to the fullest. It’s all bittersweet, knowing as we do that Enable has no idea that her career on the turf is winding down, and that very soon she will leave Clarehaven and the only life she has known since she was a 2 year-old.

ENABLE — that beautiful face. Photo and copyright, Michael Harris. Used with permission.

As an experienced and mature thoroughbred, Enable is stronger physically than she was at 3, and her form thus far closely resembles that of her three year-old season. Her performance against the superb Crystal Ocean in the 2019 King George and her gate-to-wire win in the Cheshire Oaks had me rivetted, while also prompting reflections on her 2018 campaign. The difference in Enable from a year ago is enormous this year: she is one healthy, happy, alert and determined competitor.

But she’s also older than some very fine colts who will meet her on the Longchamps turf this fall, as John Gosden cautioned when interviewed after Enable’s most recent victory. It is a critical observation from a consumate trainer that I will remember as the field goes to post on October 6, 2019, when the Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe takes place. This is no apologeia for Enable: age and experience are as often blessings as not.

 

 

 

Individuals like Enable are rare in the history of our sport, and the full significance of any historical event eludes us while we live it. But I know that Enable’s campaign has been exactly that, whether or not I can fully apprehend its significance. Enable’s career dwarfs most of the other racing stories of the last decade, even as it sets the standard of excellence for future champions.

UK photographer Michael Harris says that this shot of ENABLE going back to the stable at York with Tony was inspired by the cover of the Beatles’ album, Abbey Road. Photo and copyright, Michael Harrisd. Used with permission.

Longchamps on October 6 awaits. But regardless of the outcome, all that Enable is and all that she represents can never be diminished.

Well, I don’t know what will happen … but it doesn’t really matter to me now. Because I’ve been to the mountaintop … and I’m not worried about anything.” (Dr. Martin Luther King, April 3, 1968)

A. Anderson. The Mountaintop. Ink on rice paper (2017).

 

NOTE: I would like to thank the gifted Michael Harris, thoroughbred photographer, for kindly giving me permission once again to use his photographs of Enable in this article.

 

BONUS FEATURES

 

1) Ebor Festival: Yorkshire Oaks. Very likely Enable’s last start in England

 

 

 

2) “Two Bodies One Heart” : Enable & Frankie. Posted by a fan

 

 

3) 2019 Yorkshire Oaks highlights: Some great footage of Enable and Frankie before and after the race

 

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NOTE: THE VAULT is a non-profit website. (Any advertising that appears on THE VAULT is placed there by WordPress and the profit, if any, goes to WordPress.) We make every effort to honour copyright for the photographs used in our articles. It is not our policy to use the property of any photographer without his/her permission, although the task of sourcing photographs is hugely compromised by the social media, where many photographs prove impossible to trace. Please do not hesitate to contact THE VAULT regarding any copyright. Thank you.

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Images hold a memory in place and this image, of a champion colt who has been long-forgotten, is about to find its frame.

 

ROMAN SOLDIER pictured in 1935 at Hialeah Park, Florida. An NEA photograph. (Source: EBAY.)

 

Go looking for Roman Soldier and you’ll be greeted by blanks almost everywhere you turn. If you’re lucky, you might find a trace that invites you to find out more.

My first sighting of Roman Soldier was when I saw this beautiful photo listed on Ebay. I’m a sucker for a great photograph –one that fills the eye and stops you dead in your tracks. And this one (above) did just that. Although a solitary figure, Roman Soldier’s stride and arched neck screamed power, courage, confidence.  Something about the composition, perhaps its atmosphere, communicated that this colt was special.

Off I went to search, learning that Roman Soldier retired after making 40 starts, with earnings of in excess of 91k USD — an enormous sum in the 1930s, when he raced.

He was, indeed, special.

 

BLOODLINES

In 1919, the year that the “Great War” (WW1) ended, Roman Soldier’s grandsire, Grand Parade, won the Epsom Derby and St. James Palace Stakes, among other British races. Foaled in Ireland, it was said that his dam, Grand Geraldine, spent her days pulling a cart. The coal-black son of another Derby star, Orby, who was also the first Irish-trained horse to win the Epsom Derby, was purchased by Richard “The Boss” Croker, aka Lord Glanely, as a foal:

“…He was well bought as a foal for 470 guineas and showed himself a good early two-year-old, winning in England and Ireland, but considered some way short of the best of his generation. The colt thrived the following season but because of a trace of lameness holding him up in his work, he took his place in the Derby field very much as the owner’s second string.

Grand Parade came in at 33/1 after prevailing in the final furlong, a brave run by a colt who was having his first start as a three-year-old. After a success at Ascot in a two-horse race, Grand Parade went to Lord Glanely’s Exning Stud (near Newmarket) in 1920. He was not a spectacular sire but his Diophon won the 2000 Guineas in 1924. Most of his stock lacked the stamina he showed himself. ” (Source: The National Horseracing Museum, Newmarket, Suffolk)

The handsome GRAND PARADE (1916) after his Derby win, showing the colours of his owner, the Baron of Glanely (Richard Croker), and a portrait of his jockey, Fred Templeman.

Grand Parade’s owner had also bred and raced Orby, but his “other” story was one of corruption. In an article written by Jay Maeder in the New York Daily News, Croker was profiled under the heading “Richard (The Boss) Croker: How the Tammany Hall Leader Became ‘Master of the City.’ ” Here’s an excerpt:

“… Once upon a time, Tammany Hall had been purely a nest of thieves, for years presided over by the ravenous William Marcy Tweed, a man who plundered the city’s coffers so openly that after a while it just seemed to be the natural order of things. By 1870, indeed, Tweed had engineered a new City Charter that effectively made it legal to steal.

…County Cork-born Croker had come to New York as a child, grown up with the brawling Fourth Ave. Tunnel Gang and then, like so many ambitious Irish lads, sought to improve himself by joining Boss Tweed’s Fire Department. Fast did he find himself useful to a Tammany organization always on the lookout for such a promising young fellow as himself: Croker was very good at voting many times over for a given Tammany candidate, and he was very good at breaking the bones of citizens who seemed to want to cast their votes for anyone else.

…In short order he became an alderman, then coroner, then the personal protege of Honest John, who named him fire commissioner. When Honest John died in 1886, it was Croker who succeeded him, merely by sitting down in his chair and asking what anyone was going to do about it.

They called him The Master of the City, and this he indisputably was. His Tammany Hall was the very model of administrative efficiency: ‘I go down to the City Hall every day and go through the departments and see what is going on,’ Croker explained once, ‘and if I find anyone at fault I take them to task.’ Recalcitrant district leaders were summoned to his office, slammed into the walls for a while and then sent away more agreeable to his wishes.”

A political cartoon depicted Richard Croker, his tentacles deep into one of New York City’s “Ice Trust” office.

 

Richard Croker aka Lord Glanely leads in GRAND PARADE after his 1919 Derby win.

Grand Parade’s Derby win includes a portrait of England just at the end of WW1. (Note that, unfortunately, the footage has no sound.)

How Croker purloined his Irish title is unknown, but he did retire to his native Ireland where his stud at Exning gained a fine reputation, counting six classic winners to its name. It was as though Croker took on a completely new identity in his native land, becoming a portly owner-breeder who was known by his turf friends as “Old Guts And Gaiters.” But his return to the Emerald Isle did not go without comment — and the criticism was harsh and came from established Irish breeders.

As it turned out, Croker also had a stud in America and when he retired to Ireland, he brought some of his American bloodstock with him. At the time (the early 20th century) the Irish — in fact, most of the UK — felt that the American thoroughbred was a “stain” on the legacy of the British thoroughbred. But in a supreme irony, one of Croker’s  “inferior” American horses was to establish a breeding legacy.

Her name was Rhoda B. (1895), a daughter of Hanover (1884) out of the mare, Margerine (1886), a descendant of Australian (1858) and Stockwell (1849). Once arrived, Rhoda B. was bred to the great British sire, Orme (1889), of the Bend Or line, producing Orby (1904) and, bred the following year to St. Frusquin (1893), she produced the champion filly, Rhodora (1905).

RHODA B., dam of ORBY and RHODORA. She is pictured here with an unidentified foal.

 

ORBY (Orme X Rhoda B). Bred by Croker and from the Bend Or sire line, Orby became the first to complete the Epsom-Irish Derby double. Following his exploits on the turf, Croker was offerred 50 thousand guineas for both ORBY and his dam, but refused to sell them. ORBY proved to be a reasonably successful sire. Among his best were the Classic winners GRAND PARADE and DIADEM (1000 Guineas). He also sired the winners of about 30,000 (BPS). His reputation was sterling enough that the prominent Irish firm, Goff’s, named one of their sales events after him.

 

RHODORA (St. Frusquin X Rhoda B.). She was one of the best in 1907, winning the Dewhurst and the 1000 Guineas. As a broodmare, she had a hard time and none of her foals survived. Owned by Donald Fraser, Rhodora was slaughtered and fed to his hunting dogs when she failed to give him a live foal.

 

Cohort (1925), the sire of Roman Soldier, was a Croker homebred. The son of Grand Parade was imported to the USA from Ireland at the age of 4, where he proved a very useful stallion. Roman Soldier’s dam, Miamba (1921), was a daughter of Lord Derby’s Light Brigade (1910), also of the Bend Or sire line. Light Brigade arrived in the United States in 1916, where he stood at Hartland stud in Versailles, KY until 1931. Top American winners sired by Light Brigade include Rose of Sharron (1926) and Dr. Freeland (1926), although he is arguably best known today as the BM sire of champion, Discovery (1931).

A winner of the Scarborough and Easter Plates in the UK, Cohort’s best progeny, other than Roman Soldier, and winners of 50k USD or more were the colts  Bobanet (1942) and Brownie (1939), and the filly Ciencia (1939), who won the Santa Anita Derby and was trained by HOF William James “Buddy” Hirsch for King Ranch. The ride that jockey Carroll Bierman gave Ciencia in the Santa Anita Derby is considered one of the finest in all of racing and made the filly the first of her sex to win the classic. Ciencia would go on to become the granddam of champion filly, Miss Cavendish (1961).

Despite Ciencia’s remarkable achievement at Santa Anita, Roman Soldier was easily Cohort’s best progeny based on earnings.

SEABISCUIT, KAYAK II and CIENCIA (left with white nose) going down to the start of the Santa Anita Derby.

Cohort’s dam was Tetrabazzia (1918), a daughter of the incomparable The Tetrarch, out of the mare, Abazzia, a daughter of the champion Isinglass (1890). As we have often asserted here on The Vault, whenever The Tetrarch appears in the first 5 generations of a pedigree, even in the form of a lesser-known daughter like Tetrabbazia, it is always worth noting. Although his brilliance on the turf in the UK was short, The Terarch’s influence on generations of champions right up to the present day is extraordinary.

Tetrabazzia’s best progeny was not Cohort, but the colt Singapore (GB b. 1927). The latter was sired by Gainsborough (GB b.1915) and rated co-champion 3 year-old after his wins in the St. Leger and the Doncaster.

 

The Tetrarch winning the Woodcote Stakes, Steve Donoghue u

 

ROMAN SOLDIER’S RACING CAREER

His name a nod to his sire, Roman Soldier (1932) was purchased for $1,000 USD as a yearling by HOF Max Hirsch at a fall sale in Lexington KY and at 2 was introduced to the track. As proof that Hirsch didn’t think much of him, the colt ran strictly for purse money, capping his juvenile season with 12-5-4-0 and earnings of $4,690, paying back his purchase price in style. The little black colt moved with the Hirsch stable to Florida for the winter and was sold, shortly thereafter, to the wealthy Indiana merchant, William Sachsenmaier and trainer, Phil Reuter, for $7500 and 25% of his earnings, if he won the Florida Derby. However, Roman Soldier would also race under the ownership of Phil Reuter and Elwood Sachsenmaier, the son of William, as the latter died shortly after the colt’s 3 year-old campaign. Phil Reuter trained him throughout a career that may well have put paid to Max Hirsch’s initial impressions about the Cohort colt’s ability.

Trainer Phil Reuter visiting a few of his horses. Date unknown.

Among Roman Soldier’s 3 year-old peers were the likes of Triple Crown winner, Omaha, and the splendid filly, Black Helen. But even such stiff competition did not dim his reputation for the esteemed thoroughbred sports writer, John Hervey, aka “Salvator,” who devoted no less than a fulsome four pages to him in “American Race Horses, 1936” when the “Black Soldier” (Hervey’s moniker for Roman Soldier) campaigned as a 4 year-old. And it was to this source that I turned to find out more about Roman Soldier’s racing career. In fact, without Hervey’s copious research, this article would have been very thin indeed, despite numerous headlines about the colt that appear with regularity in local and national newspapers during his career.

The legendary John Hervey, aka “Salvator,” a consummate racing historian.

 

ROMAN SOLDIER (top corner) as he appeared in American Race Horses 1936, where he was featured in the chapter “Handicap Stars.”

 

There is no question that Roman Soldier was one of the stars of the 1935 -1936 racing seasons, a reputation he earned based on heart, courage and determination. In 1935, between January 17 until July 20, the colt started 12 times, finishing up with a record of 6-2-1 and earnings of $45,100 USD, making Roman Soldier the third highest-earning 3 year-old that year, after Colonel Bradley’s Black Helen and Triple Crown winner, Omaha. After his score in the Detroit Derby, which came in June of that year, his owners were offerred $60,000 USD for him. The offer was refused.

BLACK HELEN and jockey Don Meade after the filly’s win in the 1935 American Derby. She was the undisputed best of her sex that year, also winning the Florida Derby, CC Oaks and Maryland Handicap.

Although the small black colt won impressively in Detroit, Texas and Florida that year, putting up figures like 1:53 over 9f, Roman Soldier is arguably best known for chasing home Omaha in the May 4, 1935 Kentucky Derby.

1935 Kentucky Derby program.

The colt went into the Derby as second favourite; in the post parade John Hervey observed that he looked “…small and frail beside the first choice, the towering Omaha.” But none of that kind of talk bothered Roman Soldier. He did himself proud on the day.

(Note: This video has no sound. However, it stands as a record of May 4, 1935, giving the viewr a sense of the day. Of interest, too, are the shots of police battling gate crashers: apparently gate-crashing was a common affair on Derby day in the 1930’s. As the field turns for home on that wet, rainy day, it becomes a two-horse race. Roman Soldier can be seen clearly at the finish, closing on Omaha.)

A courageous and gritty performance by ROMAN SOLDIER demonstrated that, however “frail” he might have appeared in the post parade, his heart was as big as the winner’s.

The colt came out of the Derby with a sore and swollen ankle on a foreleg, but once mended, he would go on to race in at least three other highly-rated contests. In the Illinois Derby (May 24), where he gave away 6-11 lbs to his challengers, Roman Soldier got up for second. The view of racegoers and sportsmen alike was that he deserved to win. His performances following the Illinois were lacklustre and by the end of his 3 year-old campaign, Roman Soldier was worn out.

Sent off to Kentucky to refresh for his 4 year-old season, John Hervey notes his comeback as follows:

“…Our Soldier, unlike many that come home maimed from the field of battle, was right back on it when robins nested again and hostilities resumed in the Atlantic sector, which he had not invaded the previous campaign. With a strange disregard of critical opinion, he declined to be either a withered leaf or a pensioner idling in the sunshine before the temple of Mars…As a patrician of the equestrian order, the fighting urge proved irresistable and on May 6 he came forth in his war gear at Pimlico…the active combatant ready for any kind of scrimmage…”

The comeback was in a Grade A handicap and Roman Soldier, assuming top weight of 126 lbs., won over 6f in 1:12 1/5. He won his second start at Belmont Park with ease before moving on to “the New England entrenchments” (Hervey). Starting at Rockingham Park, the colt romped home and this earned him, in turn, weight of 132 lbs in the Granite State Handicap, also run at Rockingham, where he faced off against Vanderbilt’s son of Man O War, Identify, who carried 116 lbs.

Rockingham Park’s clubhouse in 1933

 

The handsome IDENTIFY (Man O War X Foot Print by Grand Parade) shared some of ROMAN SOLDIER’S bloodlines through his BM sire, Grand Parade. The colt was picked up in a claiming race by Alfred G. Vanderbilt Jr for $3500 USD. He would easily repay Vanderbilt: he retired with earnings of over 36k, having made 51 starts with 12 wins and another 15 place and shows. (Source: American Race Horses 1936; photographer Bert Clark Thayer. Copyright: The Sagamore Press.)

It was a rousing battle in which Roman Soldier and Identify fought tooth-and-nail to the wire, with the former prevailing by a head. The New York Times blared out the headline:

“Roman Soldier Beats Identify By Head at Rockingham Park; Heavily Weighted Favorite Passes Vanderbilt Racer in Stretch to Win Granite State Handicap as 30,000 Look On — Black Gift Third, Three Lengths Back.” (June 7 1936)

Dramatic as his contest was with Identify, it was not the apex of Roman Soldier’s 4 year-old season. Nor was it his defeat of the champion Discovery in the Havre de Grace Handicap in September, where Roman Soldier only carried 118 lbs. to Discovery’s 128. In fact, Discovery limped off the track, and few witnessing the race would have disagreed that Roman Soldier did much more than claim the spoils. But this is all speculation: no question that Discovery was in a league apart, but upsets do happen.

The crown of Roman Soldier’s year was his very own “Triple.” In sweeping the Havre de Grace, Washington and Riggs Handicaps, the colt did something that had never been done before. No thoroughbred had won the richest triad of Maryland handicaps in the same season. His feat was “…the only one in our turf history comparable to that of Whisk Broom when in 1913 he achieved his historic ‘triple’ in the three great spring handicaps of the Long Island courses,  the Metropolitan, Brooklyn and Suburban.” ( John Hervey in American Race Horses 1936)

Much of the credit for Roman Soldier’s performance in the Washington and Riggs Handicaps must go to jockey, Jack Westrope. According to John Hervey, when HOF Jack Westrope got on board, the colt seemed energized in a way Hervey had never seen before. It’s a shame that he only rode Roman Soldier twice, as Westrope was an absolutely brilliant pilot. He began riding at just eleven years of age, but four years later when he was still an apprentice, he was the leading rider of 1933 in the USA, with 301 victories out of over 1200 rides. He was 15 years old. Although he never achieved the notoriety of a Charlie Kurtsinger or Earl Sande, Westrope won many prestigious races across America; his most famous mounts were Stagehand and Cravat. Jack Westrope died in 1958, when his horse threw him. He was only 40 years old. Inducted into the HOF in 2002, at least one of his peers commented that he should have been honoured the day he died and not almost a half-decade later.

1934: Jack Westrope aboard BIEN FAIT after a win at Hawthorne. For more on Jack, please see Bonus Features below.

IN CONCLUSION

 

A fuzzy image of ROMAN SOLDIER when he won the 1935 Hialeah Inaugural Handicap as a 3 year-old. Photo: NEA.

Roman Soldier was retired at the end of his 4 year-old season and his first progeny arrived in 1938. Perhaps it was that ankle the finally got to him. At any rate, his progeny, although few in number, appear until 1950 and none were really remarkable although he did get six good runners, the best of which were the fillies Roman Sox (1940; BM sire Donnacona, a grandson of Persimmon) and Lady Romery (1936; BM sire Mad Hatter, by Fair Play). Through a daughter, Anthony’s Girl (1939), the French filly Right Bank (1980) descends, a winner of the Premio Lydia Tesio (It-Gr1), Oaks d’Italia (Italian Oaks) (It-Gr1).

The final tribute to Roman Soldier goes to John Hervey:

” Our mental picture of a War-Horse is of a tremendously big, tremendously bulky, tremendously stout charger, looking able to carry a ton of weight and go either over or through a stone-wall as may seem most urgent.

But they are not all of that kind. As we apply that term on the turf, Roman Soldier deserves it as much as any colt of recent seasons, Discovery excepted. He has sniffed the smoke of battle, heard the thunders of the captains and the shoutings, exulted in his prowess and ‘brought home the bacon’ many a time when the carnage has been fiercest. Yet to see him, you would not suspect it. He is not a horse of great size or strength. On the contrary, he is overtopped by many he has lined up with, while instead of being Herculean, he is slim and almost slight of build…

…In reality he is all steel-and-whipcord, with astonishing vitality, constitutional vigor, courage and endurance…” (In American Race Horses 1936, “Handicap Stars,” p. 161.)

 

BONUS FEATURES

1) “News In A Nutshell,” including Roman Soldier and Omaha in the 1935 Kentucky Derby:

2) Old Derby footage, beginning with Omaha’s win in 1935:

 

 

3) Article about Jack Westrope, published by The Blood Horse in 2002, the year he was inducted into the HOF:  https://www.bloodhorse.com/horse-racing/articles/186824/jack-westrope-quiet-little-man

4) 1938 Opening Day At Santa Anita:

 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Church, Michael. Online: https://www.michaelchurchracingbooks.com/the-1919-victory-derby

Harzmann, Craig. Jack Westrope: Quiet Little Man. August 5, 2002. Blood-Horse online: https://www.bloodhorse.com/horse-racing/articles/186824/jack-westrope-quiet-little-man

Hervey, John. American Race Horses 1936. USA: Sagamore Press.

Thoroughbred Horse Pedigree. Online: https://www.pedigreequery.com

 

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I owe Steve Haskin for this article because his story, “For The Love of a Horse,” got me thinking about the horse that first grabbed my heart. 

(Link to Steve Haskin’s narrative: http://cs.bloodhorse.com/blogs/horse-racing-steve-haskin/archive/2019/05/19/-For-the-Love-of-a-Horse.aspx)

The cover of Sports Illustrated featuring the 1962 Derby favourite, Meadow Stables’ Sir Gaylord.

His name was Greek Money and I laid down my very first bet on him to win the 1962 Preakness. I was 12 years old and the bet, a nickel, was lodged with Grandpa in the livingroom of my grandparents’ home, minutes before the field started to load.

It had become an annual ritual, Grandpa and me watching the Triple Crown races together. Inevitably, he would ask me for my pick and on Preakness day it was a handsome colt named Greek Money. I was feeling confident: I’d picked Roman Line to win the Kentucky Derby, and although irritated that Decidedly had robbed me of a Derby winner, I was proud that a colt no-one had much bothered with in the pre-Derby show had come in second. As importantly, I wanted to convince Grandpa that the “horse gene” we shared gave us a deep affinity.

It was tough to really connect with my grandfather, at least in part because he was the last of the Victorians — those born at the end of the nineteenth century — and his sensibility was almost a century behind mine. He believed that children “…should be seen but not heard” and he would have enforced that addage had my parents not tempered him some. But what brought us together, nurtured by my grandmother, was a passion for horses. He had watched me grow up with Breyer horses, cowboy outfits, Marx Wild West play sets and books like Misty of Chincoteague and The Black Stallion. He even tuned in on Saturdays to watch Fury, Champion the Wonder Horse, Roy Rogers and My Friend Flicka with me.

It was always so much fun — that’s how I remember watching my earliest Triple Crown races with Grandpa. Right up there with comfort food. There was no place better than to be sitting beside him in front of the black and white television console for the Derby, Preakness and Belmont. The big house grew quiet and those not interested took their leave.

Eddie Arcaro was a great favourite in the Wheeler household; Citation was one of Grandpa’s personal “Pantheon of Greats” and he loved to reminisce about “Cy” and Eddie. But Eddie was no longer riding. And for the millions who had followed his career with the kind of reverance usually reserved for places of worship, Arcaro’s retirement in 1961 signalled a sea change to the racing world as they had known it.

On Derby day in 1962 Grandpa would likely have said something like, “I sure don’t see another Citation in this bunch.” Cy was unquestionably the contemporary standard against which every promising 3 year-old was judged. (Were he alive today, Grandpa would be both annoyed and disheartened that the racing world seems to have all but forgotten his beloved Citation.)

Eddie Arcaro and CITATION wearing the roses.

His pick was the Derby favourite, Ridan. But we’d both lost out to Decidely, a son of Determine, a superstar who had won the 1954 Derby. Determine was a “little guy,” but the son of the mighty Alibhai (Hyperion) was a steel grey rocket who also won the San Gabriel, the Santa Anita Derby, the San Felipe, the San Jose and another 5 stakes in his native California that same year.

 

By Preakness Day 1962, the oval coffee table in the “sitting room” was piled high with thoroughbred magazines and race tables, attesting to my grandfather’s studious analysis of the field. As we watched the beginning of the telecast, it was his habit to tell me about some of the contenders. That year, Grandpa was still most interested in Ridan, but Jaipur was also on his lens. As a 2 year-old, Jaipur had won the Hopeful as well as the Flash and Cowdin Stakes under Eddie Arcaro. Knowing my grandfather, he likely picked Ridan over Jaipur because Arcaro wasn’t riding the latter any longer. He had followed both colts through their 2 year-old seasons, as he had Christopher Chenery’s Sir Gaylord, a prohibitive favourite to win the 1962 Derby before he was injured and retired.

2 year-old JAIPUR and Eddie Arcaro. The great jockey retired at the end of the 1961 season.

There would be no Triple Crown, but the Preakness field was still comprised of several very good colts, the best of which were arguably the aforementioned Jaipur and Ridan.

Ridan, a son of Nantallah (Nasrullah) and the excellent Rough Shod (Gold Bridge), the dam of champions Lt. Stevens, Moccassin, Gambetta and Thong, and grandam of Nureyev, certainly had an outstanding pedigree. Bred by Claiborne Farm and owned by Mrs. Moody Jolley, Ernest Woods and John L. Greer, Ridan was trained by HOF Leroy Jolley, who had primed him to victory in the Florida Derby and Blue Grass Stakes before finishing third in the Derby. On Preakness Day he was partnered by Manny Ycaza and it wasn’t unreasonable to expect a better performance from him.

RIDAN, held by Henry Gervais, returns to Claiborne Farm upon his retirement. Photo & copyright, Keeneland Library.

Jaipur was owned by the eminent owner-breeder George Widener and trained by future HOF Bert Mulholland. The son of Nasrullah (Nearco) and Rare Perfume (Eight Thirty) had an equally outstanding pedigree and 1962 was another great year for the colt, who had already won the Hopeful, the Cowdin and the Flash Stakes in 1961. Jaipur came into the Preakness with big wins in the Withers and the Gotham already under his belt. He headed to the post in the Preakness with his regular rider, Bill Shoemaker, in the irons.

Jaipur and Ridan were poised to enter into a rivalry that, if not legendary, was certainly noteworthy and destined to become the central narrative of the 1962 racing season. It hit a pitch in the 1962 Travers, as they battled for victory and 3 year-old Champion honours.

Buddy Raines (white hat) pulls post position 1 for GREEK MONEY. He’s flanked by Eddie Arcaro and Horatio Luro, who trained DECIDEDLY, the 1962 Derby winner.

As for the rest of the Preakness Field, aside from the Derby winner, Decidedly, there was also the very game Admiral’s Voyage (whose future daughter, Pas de Nom, produced the great sire Danzig), as well as a colt named Crimson Satan, the future sire of the swift Crimson Saint, dam of Terlingua (the dam of Storm Cat), Pancho Villa (Secretariat) and Royal Academy (Nijinsky). Crimson Satan was a speedball and best at shorter distances, but not the equal of the other runners in my grandfather’s view. Pedigree aside, Grandpa also quietly dismissed Decidedly’s chances, viewing his Derby win as a fluke. Roman Line was running as well, but for some reason I chose Greek Money, very likely because he was the one who most impressed me physically on the day.

But who was Greek Money — other than the strking chestnut on whom I had invested a nickel’s worth of hope?

GREEK MONEY on his way out to the track.

To begin with, Greek Money’s bloodlines were anything but shabby. By Greek Song, the winner of the Dwyer and Arlington Classic as a three year-old, Greek Money was a great grandson of Hyperion. The colt’s dam, Lucy Lufton, was by the Epsom Derby and Two Thousand Guineas winner, Nimbus, a son of Nearco.

Nimbus’ win in the 1949 Epsom Derby was witnessed by HM Queen Mary, HM Princess Elizabeth, Sir Winston Churchill, Lord Derby and the newly-weds Rita Hayworth and Ali Khan, among others:

 

 

GREEK SONG (above) ridden by John Oxley. Donald P. Ross, the owner-breeder of GREEK MONEY, also owned his sire, GREEK SONG.

Greek Money’s owner-breeder, Donald Peabody Ross, purchased his dam sight unseen at Newmarket and shipped her to the USA, where she was breed to Greek Song, who was also owned by Ross. A businessman who had co-founded Delaware Park, Ross’ Brandywine Stable might not have been a household name, but his enthusiam for breeding and racing thoroughbreds was clear.  He served as President of the Thoroughbred Racing Association, as steward of The Jockey Club and was a founding member of the Board of Trustees of the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame.

Donald P. Ross bred and owned GREEK MONEY.

In 1962, Virgil W. “Buddy” Raines was the trainer for Brandywine Stable. As a child, Raines was handed over first by his parents to serve as an endentured servant to an itinerant trainer in what was the beginning of an 80-year long career in the industry. He was subsequently passed on to one “Whistling” Bob Smith, trainer for the prestigious Brookmeade Stable and its owner, Isabel Dodge Sloane. Raines did all the usual menial jobs around the stable, but as he grew into adolescence, Smith began to mentor him and trusted him to work the great Cavalcade, a Brookmeade star. Under Smith’s guidance, Raines rose to become his assistant trainer.

During his time with Brandywine Stable, Raines not only trained Greek Money but had also trained his sire, as well as other Brandywine stars, notably the champions Cochise (Boswell X New Pin by Royal Minstrel) and his daughter, Open Fire (Cochise X Lucy Lufton), both greys and descendants of The Tetrarch sire line, a precursor of speed and stamina. In addition, from 1989-1991, the now senior Raines trained three consecutive winners of the Maryland Million Classic for Andrew Fowler, Master Speaker and dual winner, Timely Warning. The latter was ridden to victory by Raines’ grandson, Mike Luzzi.

Throughout his career, Buddy Raines was a popular personality, noted for his storytelling ways. Nominated to the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 2006, Raines lost out to Carl Hanford, trainer of the incomparable Kelso.

A young Buddy Raines aboard CAVALCADE, the star of Isabel Dodge Sloane’s Brookmeade Stable.

Greek Money was ridden on Preakness day by John Rotz, a HOF who won most of America’s important races at least once during his 20-year career. Although Rotz was never the household name that contemporaries like Arcaro or Shoemaker became, he did receive the George Woolf Jockey Award in 1973, given to a jockey who demonstrates high standards of personal and professional conduct, on and off the racetrack.

“Gentleman John” Rotz, as he was known, the jockey for GREEK MONEY.

So it was that on that third Saturday in May, I watched with intense interest as my Preakness choice was loaded and locked into the starting gate:

I jumped to my feet, yelling “He won! He won!” but Grandpa put a cautionary hand on my arm.

“Maybe not. The stewards need to look at it again.”

“Why?” I countered, incredulous.

“We’ll see what happens. Sit still now.”

Joseph di Paola’s image of GREEK MONEY and RIDAN just before they hit the wire is arguably one of the most dramatic ever — note Ycaza’s elbow, overlapping Rotz’s arm. Photo and copyright, The Baltimore Sun.

As we waited, along with all those gathered at Pimlico that day, photographer Joseph di Paola’s lens had indeed seen what happened. di Paola had decided to move down from the finish some 30-40 feet, and aimed his camera at the finish line. He was a crack photographer, who worked for the Baltimore Sun for some 50 years, and he wanted something a little different than the usual finish photo. Well, he sure got it. The image is one of the most iconic in the history of racing photography, and shows Manny Ycaza reaching over to apparently interfere with Rotz as Greek Money and Ridan neared the finish.

Oddly, it was neither the stewards nor Rotz who lodged the claim of foul: it was Ycaza, who stated that Greek Money had interefered with Ridan in the stretch. In his senior years, John Rotz told an interviewer that he didn’t believe that Ycaza had actually made contact with him. Rotz added that if Ycaza had concentrated on aiming Ridan at the finish line, instead of leaning over and stretching out his arm, Ridan would likely have won.

After an agonizing delay, the stewards ruled in favour of the winner and Greek Money was led into the winner’s circle to accept his wreath of black-eyed Susans. However, when di Paola’s photograph hit the front pages of every North American newspaper, a hearing was conducted into the matter and it was di Paola’s photo that became a primary source, since it captured something that the film of the finish didn’t allow the stewards to see. Manny Ycaza was handed a suspension.

GREEK MONEY’S win, as it was reported in the Winnipeg Free Press, featuring Joseph di Paola’s photograph.

My pride was visceral: Greek Money was “my” colt and his victory belonged to me.

Actress Joan Crawford presents the Preakness trophy to jockey John L. Rotz, rider of GREEK MONEY.(Clarence B. Garrett/ Baltimore Sun)

I won back my nickel plus Grandpa’s, and shortly thereafter used my winnings to purchase a Drumstick ice cream cone.

That it tasted like no Drumstick before it, I’m certain.

 

Selected Bibliography

Knauf, Leslie. “1962 Preakness: The Stretch Duel In Which ‘All Heck Broke Loose’ ” The Rail, May 16, 2012.  https://therail.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/16/1962-preakness-the-stretch-duel-in-which-all-heck-broke-loose/

Campbell, Cot. Stories From Cot Campbell: Virgil W. “Buddy” Raines. The Blood-Horse, February 27, 2013. http://cs.bloodhorse.com/blogs/cot-campbell/archive/2013/02/27/buddy-raines.aspx

Aiken Thoroughbred Racing and Hall of Champions: Open Fire. https://www.aikenracinghalloffame.com/Open_Fire.html

 

Bonus Features

Jaipur Documentary:

The 1962 Travers: Jaipur vs. Ridan

 

Jockey Mike Luzzi (Buddy Raines’ grandson) and Timely Warning (two-time winner, the Maryland Million Classic)

 

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NOTE: THE VAULT is a non-profit website. (Any advertising that appears on THE VAULT is placed there by WordPress and the profit, if any, goes to WordPress.) We make every effort to honour copyright for the photographs used in our articles. It is not our policy to use the property of any photographer without his/her permission, although the task of sourcing photographs is hugely compromised by the social media, where many photographs prove impossible to trace. Please do not hesitate to contact THE VAULT regarding any copyright concerns. Thank you.

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As the incomparable WINX marches on, in a campaign that has us all witnessing history-in-the-making, what is it that keeps us coming back to watch her race again?

The psychology of sport is arguably as fascinating as the sport itself. And while those of us who follow horse racing think we do it out of a passion for thoroughbreds or standardbreds, what gets our cranial pleasure centre pumped is the risk that our champion of the day might lose. It could be convincingly argued that without the potential for loss, sport might not exist at all. Because winning — especially winning all the time, despite the odds — is boring.

As much as metaphors of horse racing extol its capacity to inspire hope, the possibility that our four-legged hero or heroine might be conquered is as intoxicating. In a sense, we repeatedly tune in for a Winx or a Rachel Alexandra or a Frankel race because the possibility that they’ll be defeated is irresistable. Which is not to say that we think about this consciously: we don’t think “Will Zenyatta lose?” rather, what we tend to write, speak and ask ourselves is more like “Can Zenyatta do it again?”

Case in point was Zenyatta’s bid for a second consecutive win in the 2010 BC Classic. Even though the loss was painful for fans and her team, broadcaster Trevor Denman spoke a text rich in the nuanced possibility that defeat might, indeed, happen.

Since 2010, it has been the thinking of most racing experts that the great mare ran the best race of her career in defeat. But what most of us remember about that day is the anticipation — and the foreboding — as Blame and Zenyatta near the wire. And Denman’s words, “…Zenyatta ran her heart out…”

The part of the brain that controls pleasure is the amygdala and when we are in contexts that excite us or move us to a level of “brain happy”, as in intense physical workouts or deep meditation, the amygdala releases dopamine into our system. Dopamine is a natural “high” that gives us feelings of intense, emotional well-being, relieving stress and anxiety in a matter of nano-seconds. Arguably, our excitement watching a big race like the 2010 BC Classic is as much about the thrill of the loss as it is about the thrill of the win — and the amygdala cooperates by responding to our heightened senses as we watch to see what will happen.

And the “what” in “will happen” is written in the tension between win and loss, victory and defeat. In the great Frankel’s last race, the ground was less than ideal, and the colt was caught “sleeping” at the start:

Granted, the “nail-biter” of Frankel’s last appearance on the track resolved itself fairly quickly when the colt made his big move in the stretch against a valiant Cirrus des Aigles.

But many of the greatest, most beloved thoroughbreds have come perilously close to sufferring defeat at least once in otherwise brilliant careers.

One instance of this would be Personal Ensign’s victory in what would be her final race, the 1988 BC Distaff, where with heart-thumping courage she struggled in the slop against the winner of the 1988 Kentucky Derby. This race stands as arguably the best performance ever seen in a Breeders Cup Distaff/Ladies Classic. The stakes were high: Could the undefeated Personal Ensign finish off her career with a win against the Kentucky Derby heroine?

The 1978 Jockey Club Gold Cup was still another battle to the wire. It featured two Triple Crown winners, Seattle Slew and Affirmed, as well as Nelson Bunker Hunt’s Exceller. Although, sadly, many know Exceller because of his end in a slaughterhouse in Sweden, the colt was a champion who had won races in Europe as well as America.

As you will see in this (rather poor quality) footage of the 1978 Jockey Gold Cup, Seattle Slew ominously rushes out of the gate before the start, although this didn’t appear to dampen his ability in the slightest as the race gets underway. But as viewers in the moment we, of course, don’t know this. And the “Can Slew do it?” is in the forefront as the race gets underway. The track conditions are sloppy but racing fans were firmly entrenched in either the Seattle Slew or Affirmed court:

 

Champion EXCELLER portrayed by Richard Stone Reeves.

The rare defeats of champion thoroughbreds only seem to make racing enthusiasts respect them more. This might be because a champion has proved his/her vulnerability, making them appear a little more like the rest of their human following. The poet Sylvia Plath wrote, “Perfection is terrible … Cold as snow breath..” and, in a sense, our passion for a particular thoroughbred champion is also based on their overcoming the stasis of perfection, which they do by bravely facing the music again and again and risking everything.

The corollary of hope is despair, and loss is one of the experiences that triggers feelings of despondency. Perhaps no other event in the last century of racing in England was as keenly felt as Nijinsky’s narrow loss to Sassafras in the 1970 Arc.

The British people had easily fallen for the brilliance of their Triple Crown winner and so much hope was placed on a triumph in the Arc. But what most had no way of knowing was that Nijinsky had fallen ill to an extreme case of ringworm during the season and that his run in the St. Leger, the last leg of the British Triple Crown, was against the advice of his trainer, Vincent O’Brien. But as owner Charles Engelhardt wanted Nijinsky to run in the Arc — another request frowned upon by O’Brien — the St. Leger was the only decent prep moving forward.

Had O’Brien’s sage advice been heeded, there would have been no Triple Crown winner of 1970. And, as it turned out, the trainer’s judgment about the champion’s fitness for the Arc was also correct.

Still another lacune was Lester Piggott’s ride on Nijinsky in the Arc: he held the colt back too long and whipped him near the finish, causing Nijinsky to shy and lose any chance he may have had to beat Sassafras:

 

The 1970 Arc. It was this close — NIJINSKY on the outside in a photo finish.

Still, it was a photo finish. But when Sassafras was declared the winner, the despair of Nijinsky’s handlers was visceral. They were not alone. Just across the English Channel, England and Ireland felt the loss every bit as keenly.

Had he won under circumstances that would stop most horses cold — from a poor post position to the distance he was asked to travel to reach Sassafras – Nijinsky would have gone down in history as THE thoroughbred of the century. But such was not to be. However, Nijinsky’s courage and raw ability could not be denied: in defeat, he was glorious.

The Hero’s Journey is played out in myth,religions, literature, film and popular tv series around the world.

Since the beginning of time, myths of the hero’s journey have been written. It’s a formula that we all know very well, however we might have learned it: the hero/heroine is born but orphaned early in life — to realize his/her true heroism, s/he must accept and overcome a series of challenges — triumphing over all, the apprentice becomes a true hero/heroine.

In modern times, we recognize the pattern of the ancient hero myths in Shakespeare, in George Lukas’ original Star Wars trilogy, in book series such as Harry Potter and author Philip Pullman’s “His Dark Materials,” in Marvel characters (Superman, Spiderman, Wonder Woman et al.) and in television series like Game of Thrones.

But it was theatre and sport that first popularized the hero myth for enthusiastic spectators in the ancient world, pitting individuals against challenges both psychological (as in the Greek tragedy, Oedipus Rex) and physical (marathon runs, chariot races, etc.) That tradition has continued to the present.

GOSHAWK walks onto the track. The image evokes the hero entering the fray, and few capture it better than the incomparable C.C.Cook. Date: 1923. (Source: The Vault, private collection)

The pageantry of a horse race echoes, in microcosm, the journey of the hero. Out the horses come, one by one, in the pre-race parade. Each is a warrior going into a battle where the outcome is far from assured. And as we watch them, we can’t help but imbue each one with the courage they so rightly deserve. Once the race is on, we are presented with a micro-battle scene, as horse and jockey overcome all that is thrown in their way to cross the finish line first. If they come home leagues ahead of the field, or fight it out to get their nose down first, they triumph as only a hero or heroine can.

BATEAU (Man O’ War) seems dwarfed by the enormity of the track, reminding us of the challenge she faces — and will be asked to overcome. Another of C.C. Cook’s “racing portraits.” (Source: The Vault private collection.)

 

The Dwyer, July 1920. MAN O’ WAR, with Clarence Kummer up, on his way to the post. Cook frames the colt’s readiness for battle in an image that depicts his taut body and pricked ears, underlying the determination that was so much a part of Man O’ War’s character. Keeneland Library: Cook Collection. Used here with permission.

The drama of a race in which we have invested our hopes and fears is cathartic because we, too, have run races in our own lives. We have funded courage against the odds and struggled to overcome them, and we have succeeded or failed in the process.

Win or lose, the thoroughbreds we have grown up with and come to love, go on. And as we participate in their campaigns, we are also subconsciously reliving places in our own lives. How else to explain our unerring understanding of the grammar of loss and our enthusiastic reception of the crucible through which thoroughbred champions come to be?

 

 

 

BONUS FEATURES

Out of the past: A few of the many other breathtaking performances that are personal favourites (below), listed at random.

We’re certain that our readers have their own favourites. Many of these are available on YouTube if you’d like to relive them.

 

Secretariat — The Belmont

 

Ruffian — The Mother Goose

 

Rachel Alexandra — The Kentucky Oaks

 

Barbaro — 2006 Kentucky Derby

 

 

Tiznow & Giant’s Causeway — 2000 BC Classic

 

Dance Smartly — 1991 BC Distaff (following her winning the Canadian Triple Crown)

Invasor & Bernadini — 2006 BC Classic (also features Lava Man, Flower Alley, George Washington, Giacomo, Lawyer Ron & Brother Derek):

 

Zenyatta — 2009 BC Classic

 

American Pharoah — 2015 Belmont Stakes, winning the Triple Crown

 

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NOTE: THE VAULT is a non-profit website. (Any advertising that appears on THE VAULT is placed there by WordPress and the profit, if any, goes to WordPress.) We make every effort to honour copyright for the photographs used in our articles. It is not our policy to use the property of any photographer without his/her permission, although the task of sourcing photographs is hugely compromised by the social media, where many photographs prove impossible to trace. Please do not hesitate to contact THE VAULT regarding any copyright concerns. Thank you.

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